Sapphire, the September birthstone, has been popular since the Middle Ages and, according to folklore, will protect your loved ones from envy and harm. Medieval clergy wore sapphires to symbolize heaven, while commoners thought the gem attracted heavenly blessings. Blue sapphires range from very light to very dark greenish or violetish blue, as well as various shades of pure blue. The most prized colors are a medium to medium dark blue or slightly violetish blue. Sapphire is a variety of the gem species corundum and occurs in all colors of the rainbow. Pink, purple, green, orange, or yellow corundum are known by their color (pink sapphire, green sapphire). Ruby is the red variety of corundum.
Since medieval times, sapphire has been associated with the majesty and tranquility of the heavens. It was thought to dispel evil thoughts and to bring peace and amiability to its wearer. The stone is associated with Abraham in the Judeo-Christian tradition. The name sapphire comes from the Greek (for blue), and as late as the Middle Ages, the word applied to lapis lazuli.
From Antiquity, gemstones have been thought to possess mysterious powers. Sapphire is said to enhance creativity and to focus purity of thought. It is known as the stone of new love and commitment and is claimed to be useful in encouraging faithfulness and loyalty. Because of its blue color, it is associated with the throat and brow chakras - where energy imbalances are said to cause sore throats, headaches and nightmares.
Sapphires and rubies are closely related, having corundum as their base mineral. The iron pigment in the corundum makes sapphire blue, while the chrome element in rubies makes them red. Corundum gemstones are the second hardest of the most precious of gemstones (diamond, sapphire, ruby, and emerald). Sapphire actually has a range of colors, from blue to yellow to green to orange-pink.
Mineral Information: Aluminum oxide, corundum group
Chemical Composition: AI2O3
Specific Gravity: 3.99-4.00
Refractive Index: 1.766-1.774
Sapphire is found primarily in pegmatite (igneous rock) or as water-worn pebbles in alluvial deposits. Large stones have been found only rarely. Sapphire has long been associated with Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka and India, but also is found in Australia, Africa, Cambodia, Brazil, and in the United States in Montana. The most highly prized is the cornflower blue stone from Kashmir.
**Please note that all metaphysical or healing properties listed are collected from various sources. This information is offered as a service and not meant to treat medical conditions.